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Nutrition 3701




Outline for the day


            Functional foods

                        Type I and Type II diabetes




                        Type II diabetes


                                    -fish oil

                                    -evening primrose oil

                                    -borage oil

                                    -blackcurrant oil

                                    -fungal oil



                                    -vitamin E supplementation

                                    -healthy individuals-correlation of insulin levels with plasma leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations


Future research


                -soy isoflavones


                -black tea




Functional foods
                        Type I


                          Aside from keeping blood glucose in line with insulin injections there is not much that one can do



                        Type II


                                    Any food that contributes to weight loss


                                    Fish is the only food that works well with multiple variables- see fish oil


                                    Tomato juice –contains lycopenes that reduce LDL oxidation






                        Type II


    Fish oil-omega 3 fatty acids cause improvements- EPA and DHA have been fingered


        -Triglycerides-post prandial lipemia is increased in type II diabetes due, in part, to slowed LPL activity


    -since fish oil acts on reducing apo B-100 synthesis there is a drop in VLDL  synthesis


                 -insulin receptor fluidity has been reported to increase in some studies


                                            Evening primrose oil

                            -diabetic neuropathy-slows nerve conduction velocity in humans and in animals


                             -evening primrose oil decreases diabetic neuropathy

further improvements in diabetic neuropathy have been associated with the combination of   evening primrose oil administration with ascorbic acid or lipoic acid –such combination studies have only been conducted in animals-


                             -borage oil, blackcurrant oil and fungal oil- none of these have been studied with regard to diabetic neuropathy



                         -fibre-fermentation produces short chain fatty acids which may alter lipid metabolism


-however, dislipidemia (elevated FFA, triglycerides and decreased HDLc blood plasma concentrations) are not altered by fructoligosaccharides






                         -chromium picolinate


-increased insulin binding, insulin receptor number and increased receptor signalling to the glucose protein transporters


-decreased haemoglobin glycosylation


                                    Vitamin E supplementation


                           -decreased LDL oxidation in some studies


Healthy individuals


                           -correlation of insulin levels with plasma leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations

                           -a mixture of leucine, phenylalanine  gave a lower blood glucose response when consumed with glucose compared to the situation where glucose was consumed without these amino acids- the amino acids gave a higher blood insulin response resulting in a lower blood glucose

                           -further amino acids increase Krebs cycle activity which signals increased glucose uptake dependent on increased insulin response

                            -however, these amino acids irritate the small intestine- however, if wheat protein hydrosylate is given along with  free leucine, phenylalanine this reduces the intestinal irritation while allowing the insulinotropic effect of these amino acids





Future research

Soy isoflavones-antioxidant and dyslipemia combattants

                                   Leptin-weight control

                                   Black tea